At a time of year when there’s a lot of talk about setting goals and resolutions, the AAUP’s goal is clear: continue to be a strong advocate for academic freedom, the faculty voice, and shared governance this year and beyond. There are a multitude of ways that you can get involved in the AAUP’s work in 2019 -- from proposing an article for our Journal of Academic Freedom to nominating a colleague for an award to joining us for our 2019 Annual Conference -- and by doing so, ensure that we continue to be a strong voice for higher education in turbulent times.
Here’s one major thing you can do to help build the voice and power of the AAUP in 2019: talk to your nonmember colleagues about the importance of joining the AAUP. Tell them why you’re a member and what you’re fighting for.
So what’s ahead in 2019?
We’ll be releasing the report of an investigation into the abrupt nonreappointment of a faculty member at Nunez Community College. The investigating committee concluded that the action was taken in apparent violation of his academic freedom and without a dismissal hearing to which he was entitled as the result of having obtained de facto tenure at the institution after twenty-two years of service. We’ll also release a report of an investigation at Maricopa Community College, examining the governing board's termination of a “meet-and-confer” provision of the faculty policy manual and its move to severely limit the participation of the faculty in institutional governance. We’ll share those reports later this winter. To get up-to-the-minute updates on our work and join lively discussions, you can follow us on Facebook or Twitter.
Our next volume of the Journal of Academic Freedom is scheduled for publication in fall 2019 -- add your voice. We’re seeking original, scholarly articles that consider how “bullying” is implicated in conflicts taking place around discourses of civility and academic freedom. We are especially interested in essays related to how discourses of civility operate in terms of precarity, identity, and labor; globalization; social media and communication, campus discourse and more. See the complete call for papers, due March 1.
If your state has an active AAUP conference, you may be interested in getting more closely involved with the AAUP’s Assembly of State Conferences (ASC) or know someone who is. The ASC, which works to promote the general objectives of the AAUP and supports the development of state conferences and the member chapters, is seeking nominations for the following positions on its executive committee: treasurer and two at-large members. Visit https://www.aaup.org/2019-asc-election for more information. Nominations are due by 5:00 p.m. on Friday, January 18.
Save the date for the AAUP annual conference! It will be held June 12–16 just outside of Washington, DC. Highlights include a plenary session on the state of academic freedom, a Friday night reception, and an awards and recognition luncheon. In lieu of paper panels this year, we will organize peer-to-peer sessions in which chapters, staff, and members can share information about topics such as state-level legislation and lobbying; shared governance challenges; organizing locally around contingency; what’s coming up at the bargaining table; and organizing and member recruitment. We will also discuss proposed changes to the AAUP’s organizational structure.
Register now for the 16th Annual Meeting of the California Conference of the AAUP, Are Shared Governance and Academic Freedom One and the Same? to be held March 2 at Cal Maritime in Vallejo. Highlights include a keynote address, The Future of Academic Freedom, by Henry Reichman and 4 timely workshops on topics ranging from Creating Just Spaces on Campus to Fair Use for Academics.
If there is a leader or someone you want to recognize for outstanding service to the profession or chapter- or conference-level work, nominate them for an award. The deadline for all awards is March 15. Learn more here. Awards are presented at the Annual Conference.
Last but not least: in case you missed it, we highlighted some of our most significant wins in fall 2018 on our Academe Blog. From a victory for academic freedom at Rutgers to an important win for faculty of Purdue Global where our work exposed Purdue Global’s attempt to stifle individual faculty’s rights and undermine shared governance, it was a busy year. Read more and share the news.
Thank you for being a member of the AAUP.
With just a few days left in 2018, I urge you to make a tax-deductible contribution to the AAUP Foundation before the year ends. Please also consider setting up a monthly recurring donation. We are grateful for the generosity of all who have given already.
Even a small gift can have a significant impact when many join together to support academic freedom and the professional standards that make US colleges and universities among the best in the world. With academic freedom endangered to an extent not seen since the 1950s, the Foundation's work is more important than ever.
The targeted harassment of individual faculty members such as Laurie Rubel at Brooklyn College, Amanda Gailey at the University of Nebraska, and Mark Bray at Dartmouth College continues unabated, making online smear campaigns and death threats an occupational hazard for many whose scholarship or extramural activities address racism and other contentious topics. Intensified assaults on tenure, shared governance, and the rights of faculty unions threaten not only the faculty but our democracy itself.
We need a strong AAUP Foundation to thwart these assaults and to ensure that AAUP principles and standards remain the norm in American higher education. Your contribution of any amount will help to make this possible.
As the charitable and educational arm of the AAUP, the Foundation enables work that membership dues alone would be unable to fund. The Foundation's Legal Defense Fund supports faculty members involved in litigation that protects tenure and academic freedom and provides funding for AAUP amicus briefs, such as recent challenges to Texas’s “campus carry” law and to the Trump administration’s travel ban affecting scholars from predominantly Muslim countries. AAUP investigations of academic freedom violations are supported by the Foundation's Academic Freedom Fund, which also assists faculty members involved in academic freedom controversies—like Johnny Williams, whose suspension by Trinity College due to his social media posts was later reversed. We underwrite publication costs for the AAUP’s annual Bulletin and Journal of Academic Freedom. This year the Foundation sponsored a well-attended conference on academic freedom in California community colleges and other educational programming as well as an UnKoch My Campus report aimed at counteracting undue academic influence by donors to colleges and universities. Internationally, the Foundation has helped fund Scholars at Risk’s Student Advocacy Programs and Scholar Transition Project, which assists higher education professionals forced to emigrate due to political upheaval.
"I believe that the work you do may be one of the few lifelines remaining in our embattled society," wrote one Foundation donor last year. "Long live the AAUP—one of our best and strongest hopes!" wrote another. But if the AAUP Foundation is to continue its important work, we must expand our efforts. Attacks on higher education and the common good are being felt by faculty across the ideological spectrum—regardless of tenure status, appointment type, or home institution—and in the past few years we have seen these attacks increase. The AAUP Foundation exists to safeguard academic freedom and to support higher education in a free and democratic society. In order to persist in this work, we depend on the generosity of AAUP members and other supporters.
Please donate today.
You can also remember the AAUP Foundation in your will and leave a legacy to protect academic freedom in the future. For more information about the Foundation, and about giving options, visit our website.
Thank you for your loyal and generous support! Please forward this email to friends and colleagues who may be interested in our mission.
Chair, AAUP Foundation
P.S. If you prefer to donate by mail, please make a check payable to "AAUP Foundation" and send to:
1133 Nineteenth Street NW, Suite 200
Washington DC 20036
three significant victories
As we approach the end of the semester, I wanted to share information about three significant wins for the profession and for higher education as a common good. These successes emphasize the power that the national, the state conferences, and the chapters have when we stand united in our defense of the AAUP’s core principles of academic freedom, economic security, and shared governance for all those who teach and research in higher education.
AAUP members at University of Northern Iowa stand strong in support of collective bargaining: On October 30, 2018, the faculty at the University of Northern Iowa (UNI) voted resoundingly to recertify their AAUP chapter, the United Faculty of UNI, as their union. This vote is the result of legislation, designed to disempower unions like the United Faculty, that was passed in 2017 by the Iowa legislature. As the members and the leaders of the chapter recognized, this legislation is also an attempt to undermine the faculty voice and undermine academic freedom and shared governance. Working in collaboration with AAUP staff organizers, the chapter, which represents full-time and part-time faculty, ran a strong “Union Yes!” campaign, which resulted in 85 percent of all eligible faculty voting. Of those voting, 97 percent voted in favor of keeping AAUP union representation. Building on the momentum from this election, the chapter is continuing to strengthen shared governance on campus and to improve the working conditions of non-tenure-track members. For more information about this important victory for academic unionism, click here.
The AAUP achieves a victory for faculty governance rights at the University of Montana Western: Recently, faculty members at UMW contacted the AAUP for advice and assistance about their administration’s disregard for the role of the faculty in institutional decision making. At issue was the administration’s attempt to obstruct the faculty senate review of the chancellor, provost, and other administrators, as outlined in the university bylaws. The AAUP wrote to UMW chancellor Beth Weatherby, taking the administration to task for its unwillingness to respect shared governance, specifically the role of the faculty in the evaluation of administrators. The letter was brought to the attention of Montana commissioner of higher education Clayton T. Christian, who wrote to Weatherby to reaffirm “the important role faculty play in the campus decision-making process,” as well as the importance of principles of shared governance. The commissioner further asserted, “We must ensure that all review processes of administrators, as well as faculty, are robust, fair, and consistent with system and campus policies.” The AAUP’s intervention helped to guarantee that shared governance remains strong at University of Montana Western. Read an account by two UMW faculty members here.
Faculty form campus AAUP chapters to defend and strengthen academic freedom and shared governance: On November 30, the Chronicle of Higher Education ran a story about the revitalization of AAUP chapters on campuses around the country (see it here). In the past two years, the AAUP has welcomed 42 new or revitalized advocacy chapters. Faculty are banding together to form or revitalize AAUP chapters as a collective response to attacks on academic freedom and shared governance. Members cite corporatization, legislative overreach, and the adjunctification of the profession as the reasons for joining together to form a chapter. The AAUP welcomes these chapters and looks forward to working with them on defending AAUP core principles and ensuring higher education as a common good.
We will continue to provide updates on the important work being done by the national AAUP and by our chapters and conferences over the next semester. In the meantime, I wish everyone a happy holiday!
Julie Schmid, AAUP Executive Director
assault on gender and gender studies
In October, we learned that the Trump administration is considering a new legal definition of gender under Title IX, the federal law prohibiting sex discrimination in federally funded education programs. Gender would be narrowly defined “on a biological basis that is clear, grounded in science, objective and administrable” as “a biological, immutable condition determined by genitalia at birth.”
The AAUP’s Committee A on Academic Freedom and Tenure and Committee on Women in the Academic Profession strongly condemn efforts to restrict the legal meaning of gender to what are said to be its natural or immutable forms. Biologists, anthropologists, historians, and psychologists have repeatedly shown that definitions of sex and sexuality have varied over time and across cultures and political regimes. The politicians promoting the new definition are neither scientists nor scholars. Their motives are ideological and their invocation of “science” is cynical.
The definition change also poses a potential threat to academic freedom, in that it could be used to deny research funding to scholars and to impugn the value and validity of their scholarly work. In a 2016 report, The History, Uses, and Abuses of Title IX, we wrote that a narrow focus on sexual injury can mask relations of inequity on and off campus and overshadow the prevalence of other conditions prohibited by Title IX, including uneven access to educational resources, wage disparities, and inequitable representation across the university system. We now reiterate the necessity of robust gender studies (its research and curriculum) as essential to addressing the goals of Title IX.
Read our full statement.
Rana Jaleel, chair, AAUP Committee on Women in the Academic Profession
Henry Reichman, chair, AAUP Committee A on Academic Freedom and Tenure
CUCFA and CA-AAUP support UC-FTA demands for recognition of UC librarians' academic freedom
August 18, 2018
President Janet Napolitano
University of California
1111 Franklin St., 12th Floor
Oakland, CA 94607
Joint statement by CUCFA and CA-AAUP:
On July 26, 2018 UC negotiators rejected a proposal by the UC-AFT Unit 17 that academic freedom be recognized as a right of all UC librarians as academic employees. UC negotiators reportedly argued that academic freedom is granted only to faculty and students “to enable free expression in the classroom,” that it is “a professional standard established by faculty, for faculty,” and that their position was consistent with “AAUP’s stance on Academic Freedom.”
The American Association of University Professors (AAUP) has rejected UC negotiators’ claims and clarified that since 1972 it has recognized librarians as faculty (Joint Statement on Faculty Status of College and University Librarians - https://www.aaup.org/sites/default/files/files/2013 Bulletin/librarians.pdf).
Specifically, the joint statement affirms that:
"College and university librarians share the professional concerns of faculty members. Academic freedom is indispensable to librarians in their roles as teachers and researchers. Critically, they are trustees of knowledge with the responsibility of ensuring the intellectual freedom of the academic community through the availability of information and ideas, no matter how controversial, so that teachers may freely teach and students may freely learn. Moreover, as members of the academic community, librarians should have latitude in the exercise of their professional judgment within the library, a share in shaping policy within the institution, and adequate opportunities for professional development and appropriate reward.
The Council of University of California Faculty Associations (CUCFA) and the California Conference of AAUP chapters (CA-AAUP) wholeheartedly agree with AAUP’s 1972 statement, recognize librarians as fellow faculty, and jointly support UC-AFT Unit 17’s request that all librarians be “entitled to academic freedom, as their primary responsibility to their institution and profession is to seek, state, and act according to the truth as they see it.”
CUCFA and CA-AAUP therefore urge UC President Napolitano to instruct UC negotiators to grant academic freedom to university librarians as they rightly deserve and have requested.
President, Council of UC Faculty Associations
cc: UC Regents
Earlier this week, the US Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals upheld a lower court ruling that prevented the Trump administration from enforcing an executive order withholding federal funds from sanctuary cities and counties. These jurisdictions have passed laws putting limits on local law enforcement’s cooperation with federal immigration enforcement.
The Ninth Circuit found the Trump administration overstepped its authority with the executive order because only Congress can put conditions on federal funds. The court explained “If [the administration] were to enforce the Executive Order, the Executive would assert a power that belongs solely to Congress by withdrawing funds in the absence of congressional authorization.”
In February, the AAUP joined with other groups, including members of the California Community College System, in filing an amicus brief opposing the executive order and supporting a permanent injunction preventing its enforcement.
The AAUP’s interest in the case stemmed from the potential application of the executive order to colleges and universities. Our brief argued that an extension would negatively impact colleges’ and universities’ ability to carry out their public mission and their interests in developing a diverse student body. Allowing the executive order to stand would also set a dangerous precedent for the proposition that the president may unilaterally use the threat of withholding federal funding in a broad and punitive manner as part of an effort to coerce colleges and universities to participate in federal immigration enforcement.
In the decision, the Ninth Circuit upheld the permanent injunction preventing enforcement of the order against the city and county of San Francisco and in California, but lifted the nationwide injunction and sent the case back to the lower court for a more searching inquiry into the need for such relief.
The Trump administration has not indicated whether it will appeal the decision. The AAUP will continue to follow the case and will keep you updated.
Thank you for supporting our legal work. If you’d like to deepen your support, donate to the AAUP Foundation’s Legal Defense Fund.
Risa Lieberwitz, AAUP General Counsel
Aaron Nisenson, AAUP Senior Counsel
The CA-AAUP is delighted to announce that our immediate past president, Alex Zukas, has won AAUP’s 2018 "Outstanding Achievement Award" for his "organizing work at National University, [his] accomplishments building solidarity within California’s AAUP chapters, and [his] efforts to grow faculty strength within the state," all of which AAUP believes "demonstrated outstanding leadership and work in defense of AAUP’s principles."
Alex's colleagues at CA-AAUP could not agree more!
The award will be presented on Saturday, June 16, 2018, at AAUP’s 2018 Annual Meeting, to be held at the DoubleTree Hilton in Crystal City, Virginia.
Congratulations, Alex, and well-deserved!
Signed CAAAUP Steering Committee
President, Claudio Fogu, University of California, Santa Barbara
Secretary/Treasurer, Mary Ann Irwin, Diablo Valley College
Vice President for University of California, Nathan Sayre, University of California, Berkeley
Vice President for California State University, Rosalinda Quintanar, San Jose State University
Vice President for California Community Colleges, Katherine Graham, Diablo Valley College
California Faculty Association South, Antonio Gallo
California Faculty Association North, Steve Filling
The California Conference of the American Association of University Professors (CA-AAUP) is offering a limited number of travel grants to assist chapters and individuals with the costs of attending this year's AAUP/CBC Summer Institute.
Summer Institute 2018 takes place at the University of New Hampshire in scenic Durham, New Hampshire from July 19 to July 22. This intensive, four-day series of workshops and seminars will prepare you to organize your colleagues, stand up for academic freedom, and advocate for research and teaching as the core priority of higher education. The program and additional information will soon be available at https://www.aaup.org/event/2018-summer-institute.
This year there are several grants for which CA-AAUP members can apply:
1. CA-AAUP general travel grants are intended to assist with travel and registration costs for any member of AAUP who resides in California. The maximum grant is $800/person. We encourage applicants to also seek funding from their home campuses and AAUP campus chapters.
The deadline to apply for a CA-AAUP Summer Institute General Travel Grant is midnight Friday, May 19, 2018. CA-AAUP scholarship award notifications will be issued by midnight Monday, May 21, 2018.
2. CA-AAUP private university travel grants are intended to assist with travel and registration costs for AAUP members in California who belong to an advocacy chapter at a private university. These have been funded by a generous grant from the AAUP’s Assembly of State Conferences. The maximum grant is $800/person. We encourage applicants to also seek funding from their home campuses and AAUP campus chapters.
The deadline to apply for a CA-AAUP Summer Institute Private University Travel Grant is midnight Friday, May 19, 2018. CA-AAUP scholarship award notifications will be issued by midnight Monday, May 21, 2018.
NOTE: Early registration for Summer Institute 2018 is $650/person, due May 25. Full-price registration is $675/person, due by June 29. Registration includes all workshop materials, 3 nights’ single-occupancy room, plus 3 breakfasts, 3 lunches, and opening reception on Thursday, July 19 (see website above for details).
Priority for CA-AAUP travel grants will be given to CA-AAUP members from:
* Chapters with financial hardships,
* Campuses that do not have AAUP chapters but are considering creating one
* Chapters that are providing their own matching support to help finance costs for attendees
TO APPLY FOR CA-AAUP FUNDING
Please provide the following information and send your responses via email to email@example.com
1. Your name, the name of your institution, your status (faculty, staff, etc.), chapter/union position (if any), and /or any other relevant positions you hold (e.g., member of Academic Senate). Include your preferred email address and phone number and mailing address.
2. A brief explanation of the reason for your application for travel funding.
3. How you expect to use information/experience gathered at the meeting (e.g., to organize faculty, to initiate specific actions on your campus, and/or to address another specific need).
4. Please state the sum that you are requesting. Reimbursable expenses include: registration fee ($650 early or $675 full-price), airport shuttle service/local transportation, taxi, hotel, airfare, mileage (54.5¢/mile) to/from airport or conference location and meals (up to $60/day). CA-AAUP will not reimburse attendee’s costs for alcoholic beverages.
After the meeting, awardees will submit their receipts and summarize total costs on a signed and completed CA-AAUP Reimbursement Voucher. As a condition of receiving a travel grant, each CA-AAUP travel scholarship awardee will submit a brief report to CA-AAUP (approximately 100-200 words) reporting on awardee’s planned or actual use of the Summer Institute experience on his/her campus or institution or within his/her organization. , or within 30 days of the Summer Institute. Reimbursement for travel costs will not be made until we receive the awardee’s report. Please email reports to firstname.lastname@example.org
CA-AAUP may choose to publish excerpts from these reports on the CA-AAUP website. www.ca-aaup.org
Note: travel funding occurs as a reimbursement upon submittal of original receipts and report
COLLEGE PRESIDENT "MADE A MISTAKE" - BACKS OFF CUTTING COURSES
By MARTIN ESPINOZA AND ELOÍSA RUANO GONZÁLEZ
THE PRESS DEMOCRAT
Santa Rosa Junior College President Frank Chong backpedaled Friday from a controversial move by his administration to slash summer classes this year, a budget decision that stunned the campus community overnight and fueled a backlash from students as well as faculty, who are locked in a contract dispute with college leaders.
Chong sounded two public apologies Friday, the first in a campuswide email at 8:35 a.m., when he sought to dampen furor over a plan announced Thursday evening to cut half of all summer classes to help close a budget shortfall of at least $6.5 million.
“I am not afraid to admit I made a mistake,” he wrote in the email, where he said he would postpone summer registration for at least a week to allow him to consult with the campus community over cuts. “I own it and will try to learn from it and not make that mistake again.”
Less than nine hours later, school officials told students by email that registration for summer courses would go ahead, as originally planned on Monday, before a final decision on what classes, if any, are eliminated.
The second reversal marked the end of an exceptionally turbulent day for the 100-year-old college and Chong, who called the immediate crisis the most acute of his six-year tenure at the school’s helm.
“I didn’t just screw up a little, I screwed up royally,” Chong said in an interview Friday evening.
The decision to cancel hundreds of summer classes was not floated among faculty leaders or student representatives, Chong acknowledged. One member of the elected Board of Trustees, which oversees the college and hired Chong, said the move was a surprise.
Chong said the decision “was not done correctly” and that he had asked faculty for help rectifying it.
“I did my mea culpa,” Chong said in the interview. “I admitted a mistake, and I hope the faculty and the rest of the college find that some of the things that I’ve done have been positive. Let’s see how forgiving they are.” The college community was embroiled in chaos starting Thursday evening, when Mary Kay Rudolph, senior vice president of student affairs, sent out the email announcing the summer class cuts and referring to an earlier, March 27 email from Chong about the school’s budget crisis, which has been looming since last summer. It stems from a combination of declining enrollment linked to a strong economy and departures of more than 200 students since October’s disastrous wildfires.
Rudolph said in the email that the class cuts would affect all non-online courses except those offered in public safety fields, health sciences, athletics and high school equivalency programs, as well as one mathematics course. Savings from the move were projected at $2 million.
“As President Chong indicated, we unfortunately cannot continue to maintain a ‘large college level’ of course offerings at a time when there are simply not enough students signing up for classes; the prudent approach needed is to ‘right size’ the college,” Rudolph wrote. “The immediate need is to reduce the number and type of classes offered during summer 2018, and to do so before students begin enrolling on April 2nd and wind up being displaced due to class cancellations.”
The email to college employees came in the midst of tense contract negotiations with faculty members, many of whom have voiced dismay over leadership of the college and Chong’s management. In 2017, he made $307,470 and earned $24,230 in health benefits, making him among the highest paid public officials in Sonoma County.
Students and faculty members flooded Chong with emails late Thursday and Friday expressing their anger and confusion, the college president said. Some faculty complained that they had not been consulted about the plans to eliminate summer classes and raised the possibility of a no-confidence vote over Chong’s leadership. A faculty protest is set for Monday morning outside Chong’s office in Bailey Hall.
Eric Thompson, president of the Academic Senate, said he spent Friday meeting with instructors from various departments.
“Until this morning, people were in a state of horror and shock,” he said. “People still are on edge even though he (Chong) issued the apology. We’re not sure what’s coming next.”
Thompson said the proposed cuts would have impacted thousands of students. More than 13,000 students took on-campus and online classes last summer.
SRJC Trustee Jordan Burns said the plan to eliminate summer courses wasn’t shared with the board as far as he knew.
“I didn’t know about it until the email went out,” said Burns, who heard from several students concerned about their coursework being upended. “They had already planned on taking summer classes. They had already picked their classes.”
Ursula von Ritter, an SRJC student and single mother, complained in an email to Chong that canceling summer classes would put her academic plans in jeopardy and impact her financial security. She said she’d have to postpone her plans to complete required courses, risking her eligibility for nondeferrable scholarships at the University of Michigan, where she’s set to attend later this fall.
“Without these scholarships, I will be unable to afford tuition and will lose my chance to study at the University of Michigan,” she wrote.
Faculty members also depend on summer classes to make ends meet, particularly young adjunct instructors with families, Thompson said. While he didn’t know the exact number of faculty members who would’ve been impacted by the cuts, he said it likely would’ve been in the hundreds.
Thompson said the summer semester is a moneymaker for the college, which has about 300 fulltime and 1,000 part-time instructors.
“It’s incoherent to me that cutting the summer would be the answer to our budget problems,” he said. “I hope we can step back and have adult conversations and work through solutions together in a collaborative way.”
In labor talks, the junior college and the faculty association are at impasse, with a state-appointed mediator attempting to bring the two sides to an agreement. Instructors say administrators are seeking to eliminate a formula that would cut their pay. They have charged college leaders with bloated spending on the administration and failing to properly address the school’s budget problems.
Chong, meanwhile, has said the school’s financial woes are “nobody’s fault.” SRJC faculty are paid competitively, he said, and the underlying drop in enrollment will make it difficult to avoid cuts that impact the classroom.
Roland Hughes, an adjunct communications studies instructor who teaches debate and speech courses, said his pair of summer classes would’ve been cut under the plan announced Thursday. The work accounts for a third of his total annual income.
“It’s devastating,” said Hughes, who was contacted by several students wondering if the college indeed planned to cut summer classes.
“They’re stunned and they’re all wondering what happens to them,” he said.
Chong assured staff that no one specific department or segment of the college community would feel the bulk of the pain.
The college has seen its enrollment decline for years, noted Debbie Albers, a full-time math instructor who has taught at SRJC for 23 years. However, she said, administrators should have involved the faculty before announcing such a severe proposal. It would have eliminated all summer math courses except for intermediate algebra, needed for students planning to take transfer-level courses in the fall.
“This was a bombshell dropped on everybody out of the blue,” she said.